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audio engineering

A Practical Guide To Understanding The Audio Post-Production Process - Part 1

A Practical Guide To Understanding The Audio Post-Production Process - Part 1

When talking about audio post-production, one cannot avoid one simple question: what’s the typical process most audio professionals go through when working either with a sound house or by themselves? In fact: is there a predetermined process? Everyone seems to work a little differently; however, there are certainly common steps and some common ground that you, as an audio enthusiast or audio professional, will encounter when working in an audiovisual project.

Finding Your Location

Today, any film’s soundtrack can be get done and mixed in all sorts of places and different facilities. In fact, would it be too much to say that you could even have someone do the whole sound work if you were the owner of a simple sound facility with a fistful of rooms and editors? The short answer would be: it depends.

There are many creative people working in this industry who started off using their own bedroom as their main editing and mix room. If the project you’re currently working on doesn’t require a surround sound mix and is simply going to be broadcasted and heard online, then almost everyone with a basic setup and some experience would be able to take care of your needs.

Likewise, if your documentary is about the Second World War and you’re going to hear bullets passing over your head and missiles blowing up war fields, then you’re going to need a much larger and professional room.

The process of how to find the right sound facility isn’t different from finding people to work with. In this industry, aside from the final pieces of work, which you can use to judge whether someone has skills, word-of-mouth seems to be the best source of candidates. If you’re seeking to gather a team together, ask around. If you remember an audiovisual project where the sound was definitely special, find out who was in charge.

When looking for sound professionals or an audio post-production studio, it is key to find a studio or group of people well known for their creative capabilities. Some might even say that there isn’t too much thought behind the sounds that are required for a film: “If you see a car, make sure I hear the engine once in a while.”

Working with a professional studio and a creative team will take your project to the next level, perhaps questioning the need for the engine sound, as described above, knowing that not hearing it will create another layer within the storytelling. It’s the job of the audio professional and mixer to present you with ideas and different approaches when appropriate. It should be part of a seamless chain of events and discussions and never an argument or a struggle.

In the long term, as a producer or executive, if you want an engine sound you should get your engine sound, but your audio professional might ask you what kind of emotion you’re looking for. Your first contact with a studio should lead to a conversation about the storytelling, the story itself, style, and sound needs for your project. The studio should also look at a fine cut of your film. That way they will be able to anticipate how much work is going to be required to do edit all the sounds, create the sound effects, foley, etc.

This part of the process is mostly known for raising artistic and practical questions that will certainly help the studio, the team, and you envision a much clearer version of the final cut. For instance, do you want to hear the sound effects under silent footage? Your main audio professional should provide you with a sense of the quality of your production sound in order to determine where the budget should go.

Making The Most Out Of Your Budget

Budget, that famous and no less crucial word. As audio professionals, we always try to find out how much the filmmaking team has set aside for both sound prep and mix. This is merely done in hopes of developing a plan that fits your needs as a filmmaker. It the budget isn’t close to what a traditional job would cost, taking into account the project’s needs and running time, then it’s best to state that from the very beginning.

Budget for sound design

Money is, of course, an important factor to ponder and consider, which is why knowing beforehand how much the filmmaking team is able to invest is crucial for saving time. If, as a filmmaker, you’d rather not say what your budget is, normally a studio can quote a wide price range and explain the scope of each version of such a quote. Once the budget issues have been taken care of, the next step is to establish and get the project into the audio post pipeline.

*The images used on this post are taken from Pexels.com

The Importance Of Mastering

The Importance Of Mastering

The whole idea behind the mastering stage throughout the whole audio and sound post-production process is to make audio sound the best it can across all platforms. Music, just to cite an example, has never been used or, rather, consumed across more platforms, formats, and devices than as of the last decade.

In fact, even if you’re an audio enthusiast recording and mixing at a million dollar studio, or working with different soundtracks at your very own home studio, you will always need the final quality seal of approval of the mastering stage. Thus, your resulting sound will be heard the way you, or your client, first envisioned it. A well carried out mastering job makes sound and audio consistent and balance. Without this pivotal part of the audio post-production process, individual tracks might feel disjointed in relation to each other.

The Difference Between Mastering And Mixing

Although mixing and mastering do share certain similarities, techniques, and tools, both processes are often mistaken and confused, as they are, in reality, different. The mixing process traditionally refers to what in the audio and sound post-production industry is called a “multi-track recording”, whereas mastering is the final touch; it refers to that final polish audio professionals apply to the whole mix. Let’s take a close look:

Mixing

Mixing, as mentioned above, is all about getting all tracks and audio elements to work with each other. If we were talking about mixing a record, the mixing part would be getting individual instruments and voices to work as a song. It’s, essentially, making sure everything is in place.

Once the audio professional deems they have a good mix, it should then easily flow into the mastering process.

Mastering

Now that we have given the mixing process its proper context, think of mastering as the final touch. In fact, there’s no better analogy than to think about both mixing and mastering as a car: mixing would mean getting all the parts working together, and mastering would mean getting the best car wash ever. You certainly want your new car to look as shiny, slick and cool as possible.

Mastering takes a closer look at everything in the mix and makes it sound as it is supposed to sound.

To provide a bit of history on the mastering process, it is worth mentioning that in 1948, for example, the first mastering engineers were born amidst the birth of the magnetic tape recorder. Before this, there was practically no master copy, as records used to be recorded directly on 10-inch vinyl.

In 1957, the stereo vinyl came out. Mastering engineers started to think of ways to make all records sound a bit louder. At that time, loudness was an essential factor for better radio playback and, of course, much higher record sales. This marked the birth of the well-known loudness wars that still go on in actuality.

Fast forward 30 years. In 1982 the compact disc brought a total revolution for the mastering process. Vinyl masters were totally replaced by the digital era, although many of those analog tools remained the same. Nonetheless, that finally changed in 1989 when the first digital audio workstation (DAW) and the first mastering software appeared, offering a high-end, no less than mind-blowing, alternative to the mastering process.

How Is Mastering Carried Out?

Mastering as a sub-phase of the audio and sound post-production process has its own complexity. Here are some of the most traditional techniques involved:

Audio Restoration

First, a mastering engineer or audio professional fixes any possible alterations in the original mix, like unwanted noises, clicks, pops or hiccups. It also helps to correct small mistakes or alterations that can be noticed when the un-mastered mix is amplified.

Stereo Enhancement

This technique is responsible for dealing with the spatial balance (left to right) of the audio being mastered. When done right, stereo enhancements allows audio professionals to widen the mix, which ultimately allows it to sound bigger and better. The stereo enhancement also helps to tighten the center image by focusing the low-end.

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Equalization (EQ)

Equalization or EQing takes care of all spectral imbalances and improves all those elements that are intended to stand out once the mix is amplified. An ideal master is, of course, well-balanced and proportional. This means that no specific frequency range is going to be left sticking out. A well-balanced piece of audio is supposed to sound right and good on any platform or system.

Compression

Compression allows audio professionals and mastering engineers to correct and improve the dynamic range of the mix, keeping louder signals in check while making quieter parts stand out a little bit more. This allows the mix to reach the required level of uniformity.

Loudness

The last stage in the whole mastering process is normally using a special type of compressor called a limiter. This allows audio professionals to set appropriate overall loudness and create a peak ceiling, avoiding any possible clipping that otherwise would lead to distortion.

*The images used on this post are taken from Pexels.com

How Warner Brothers ended up establishing the sound for the film industry

How Warner Brothers ended up establishing the sound for the film industry

The sound industry was established after no less than a curious chain of events. Back in 1919 three German inventors, Josef Engl, Joseph Massole, and Hans Vogt, patented the tri-ergon process. A process capable of transforming audio waves into electricity. It was initially used to imprint those waves into films strips that, when played back, a light would shine through the audio strip, converting the light back into electricity and then into sound.

The real issue in all this, however, was the amplification of the sound. which would be tackled by an American inventor who played a pivotal role in the development of radio broadcast, Dr. Lee de Forest. In 1906, de Forest invented and subsequently patented a device called the audion tube, —an electronic device capable of taking a small signal and amplifying it. The audion tube was a key piece of technology for radio broadcast and long-distance telephones.

In 1919, de Forest’s started to pay special attention to motion pictures. He realized his audion tube could help films attain a much better degree of amplification. Three years later, specifically in 1922, de Forest took a gamble and designed his own system. He then opened up the ‘De Forest Phonofilm Company’ to produce a series of short sound films in New York City. The impact of his technology was well received, and by the middle of 1924, 34 theaters in the American East Coast had been wired for his sound system.

The fact that a considerable amount of theatres in the East Coast had acquired De Forest system didn’t pick the interest of Hollywood. He had indeed offered the technology to industry leaders like Carl Laemmle of Universal Pictures and Adolf Zukor of Paramount PIctures; however, they initially saw no reason to complicate the solid and profitable film business by adding other features as frivolous as sound. But one studio took a gamble: Warner Brothers.

Vitaphone

Vitaphone was a sound-on-disk technology created and patented by Western Electric and Bell Telephone Labs they used a series of 33 and ⅓ rpm disks. When company officials attempted to get Hollywood’s attention in 1925, they faced the same attitude of disinterest that de Forest had, except for one slightly minor studio: Warner Brothers Pictures.

Courtesy of  Richie Diesterheft  at Flickr.com

Courtesy of Richie Diesterheft at Flickr.com

In April of 1926 Warner Brothers. decided to establish the Vitaphone Corporation with the financial aid of Goldman Sachs, leasing the disk technology from Western Electric for the sum of US $800,000. In the beginning, they wanted to sub-lease it to other studios in hopes of expanding the business.

The studio, Warner Brothers. never imagined this technology as a tool to produce and create talking pictures. Instead, they saw it as a tool synchronize musical scores for their own films. In order to showcase their new acquisition and the feature they had managed to add to their films, Warner Brothers launched a massive US $3,000,000 premiere in the Warner’s Theatre in New York City on August 6, 1926.

The feature film of this premiere was ‘Don Juan’. An amazing musical score performed by the New York Philharmonic accompanied the film, and the whole project was an outstanding success; some critics even went on to praise it as the eighth wonder of the world, which ultimately led the studio to project the film in several American major cities.

However, and despite the tremendous success, industry moguls weren’t too sure about spending money on developing the sound for the film industry. The entire economic structure of the film industry would necessarily have to be altered in order for it to adopt sound —new sound studios would have to be built, new expensive recording equipment would have to be installed, theatres would have to be wired for sound, and a standard sound system process would have to be defined.

Additionally, foreign sales would suffer a drastic drop. At that time, silent films were easily sold overseas. Dialogues, however, was a different story. Dubbing a foreign language was still conceived as a project that would take place in the near future. If studios were to adopt sound, it would also affect musicians who found employment in the movie theatres, as they would have to be laid off. For all these reasons Hollywood basically hoped that sound would be a simple passing novelty, but five major studios decided to take action.

MGM, Paramount, Universal, and Producers Distributing Corporation signed an agreement called The Big Five Agreement. They all agreed to adopt and develop a single sound system if one of the several attempts that were taking place alongside the Vitaphone should come to fruition. Meanwhile, Warner Brothers didn’t halt on their Vitaphone investments.

Courtesy of  Kathy Kimpel  at Flickr.com

Courtesy of Kathy Kimpel at Flickr.com

They announced that all of their 1927 pictures would be recorded and produced with a synchronized musical score. Finally, in April 1927, they built the first sound studio in the world. In May, production would begin on a film that would cement sound’s place in cinema: The Jazz Singer.

Originally ‘The Jazz Singer’ was supposed to be a silent film with a synchronized Vitaphone musical score, but the protagonist, Al Jolson, improvised some lines halfway into the movie. Lines that were recorded and could be heard by the audience. Warner Brothers. liked it and let them in. The impact of having spoken lines, however, was enormous —it marked the birth of what we know today as the sound for the film industry.

Oscar for Best Sound Mixing and Editing Explained

Oscar for Best Sound Mixing and Editing Explained

In this article, we’re going to be looking at perhaps two of the most confusing Oscars categories: Sound Mixing and Sound Editing. If you’re not familiar with the sound and audio post-production landscape, these categories might seem exactly the same thing; however, there are certain differences, and that’s why we often see a movie nominated for both.

The big thing to think about what’s sound editing and sound mixing is that sound editing refers to the recording of all audio except for music. And what’s audio without music? Dialogues between characters, the sound picked up in whatever scenario a scene was recorded at, and, also, sound recorded in the studio, for example, ADR, extra lines of dialogue, all those crazy sound created to mimic, for example, animals, vehicles, environmental noises, the foley, etc.

Sound mixing, on the other hand, is balancing all the sound in the film or the movie. Imagine taking all of the music, all of the audio, all of the dialogue lines, all the sound effects, the sounds going around, etc., and combining them together so they are perceived as balanced and beautiful tracks.

Some people refer to this last category as an ‘audio tiramisu’, as there are layers and layers of sound that, in the end, compose a beautiful orchestrated group of sounds. Layers of what’s happening in a film’s particular scene and the real realm and layers of what’s happening around it, like in the spiritual realm.

If you recall The Revenant, the American semi-biographical epic western film directed by Alejandro G. Iñárritu that was nominated for several Academy Awards categories including both sound editing and sound mixing, the exemplification of the film’s sound being a total ‘audio tiramisu’ is more noticeable. In the revenant, the sound was so perfectly crafted that it was like if two different stories were taking place at the same time side by side, and you could only distinguish between them by listening.

When it comes to sound editing, take for example another movie, Mad Max: Fury Road, the 2015 post-apocalyptic action film co-written, produced, and directed by George Miller. The movie contains all of these amazing and great recordings of cars, fire, explosions, the really subtle dialogue, which ultimately creates so much contrast between the action and what the characters were really saying. Max, played by Tom Hardy, was actually really quiet, whereas Imperator Furiosa, played by Charlize Theron, was screaming at the top of her lungs, and all of that happened in the middle of the most frenetic action possible. All the audio was used and mixed at the same time.

Having used and mixed the audio at the same time was, in reality, a huge achievement. Rumor has it they used up to 2,000 different channels, meaning they used 2,000 different audio pieces at one time, which is perfectly recognizable at the opening car chase sequence, allowing you to perceive how much sound was being used. The movie, in the end, managed to mix all the dialogue, the quiet dialogue, the effects, the action, the environmental sounds, etc., and to use it all together.

The Process Deconstructed

The relationship between sound mixing, sound mixing and storytelling, however, is perhaps the cornerstone of the whole audio post-production process. How audio design and sound mixing can be used to help storytelling, specifically in the films, is the main question that audio technicians strive to answer.

movie making.jpg

First, they approach both practices thinking how they can make the tracks sound better, and then how they can add to the story —make the audio tell the story, even if you don’t specifically see what’s going on. In terms of sound design, the whole idea behind this creative process is coming up with key takeaways regarding what is the purpose of the scene, or whether or not there are specific things that don’t appear in the moving images but still are ‘there’ and need to be told.

After having analyzed the scenes in terms of what can be done to improve the general storytelling, audio technicians start to balance the dialogues track by track, which is, of course, a process that takes several hours. Is it necessary to add the room tone? Is it necessary to remove it? Those type of questions normally arise during this part of the process. Afterward, the EQ part starts.

The EQ is normally that part of the process where audio technicians do a little bit of clean up by changing the frequencies of the sounds the audience will hear in order for them to hear them clearer and better. This is important in terms of the storytelling because by using an equalizer, audio technicians can add textures to the voice and the sounds people will hear, which is of course what the whole storytelling is about.

*The images used on this post are taken from Pexels.com


4 Services That Allow Audio Post-Production Collaboration Seamless

4 Services That Allow Audio Post-Production Collaboration Seamless

Collaboration is not foreign when it comes to audio post-production. In fact, it is what gives studios constructive feedback, ideas, solutions and different perspectives to work on altogether, helping all parties involved produce better pieces of work.

Audio, sound, and video collaboration happens all the time. When it comes to audio and sound, for instance, it has never been so plausible to write a song with another individual on the other side of the world or to hire a full orchestra or session musicians to record music for the score and original soundtrack purposes.

In this post, we address some services and other software that make the whole collaboration workflow much easier, but more importantly, productive.

The Audio Hunt

The Audio Hunt is best known for being an online collaboration platform where hundreds of studio owners and audio professionals make their gear available for other colleagues to run their tracks through. How does it work? Imagine you want to run your mix through a specific piece of equipment/software. You will then be required to, first, open a account, find the piece of hardware you want to use, start a chat with the vendor, book the job depending on the fare (fares and fees vary depending on what type of hardware/software you want to use), and, finally, wait for the service to be completed so you can download the files.

Pro Tools Cloud Collaboration

Not long ago, Avid introduced Cloud Collaboration for Pro Tools in the Pro Tool 12.5 version. This allows Pro Tools users to share parts of projects, or the whole project if necessary, with other Pro Tools users around the globe without even having to close the application. It’s a rather fancy system that seamlessly integrates between different Pro Tools versions.

audio post production.jpeg

Pro Tools Cloud Collaboration gets rid of the traditional audio post-production collaboration process that involved exporting files out of the application followed by sharing them on different cloud services for other collaborators and editors to receive. Now, the 12.5 and above allows editors to collaborate with other Pro Tools users in a much quicker and simpler way.

Source Elements Source-Connect

In case you’re wondering what is Source-Connect, Source-Connect is what replaced the ISDN. Conceived as an industry-standard replacement, Source-Connect comes with a solid set of features for remote audio and sound recording and monitoring, allowing audio and sound professionals to undertake several aspects common in the audio post-production industry such as overdub, ADR and voice-over, regardless of whether the origin of these files took place anywhere in the world, over a decent internet connection integrated to their digital audio workstations.

Source-Connect works as an application, and it does not require complex digital audio workstations setups. It allows audio and sound professionals to work directly in the DAW of their preference, which ultimately allows them to harness the full set of features the application comes with.

Besides, Source-Connect comes with a built-in Pro Tools support, which is also compatible digital audio workstations that almost exclusively support VST plug-ins, including, but not limited to, Cubase, Nuendo, Pyramix, etc.

Audiomovers LISTENTO

Listento allows users to move low latency audio files from Digital Audio Workstations (DAW) to browse through the use of plug-ins. Imagine having a client who cannot physically visit your studio to listen and give you their insights on the final mix you’ve developed. By using Listento to play the mix directly from your workstation master track to the client’s browser, you eliminate such complication.

Listento seems to be still under development. One of the things the software is working on is the future implementation of a built-in chat to communicate with your client, allowing you to move away from third-party app messengers such as Skype or Google Hangouts to discuss the intricacies of your mix with the other individual.

Listento includes several transmission formats, such as:

  • PCM 16Bit

  • PCM 32Bit

  • AAC 128Kb

  • AAC 192Kb,

  • AAC 256Kb (MacOS only)

  • AAC 320Kb (MacOS only)

Additionally, Listento is a free plug-in; however, in order for sound professionals and audio editors to use it, they will be required to subscribe to Audiomovers in order for them to stream audio files directly from their digital audio workstations. Lucky enough, Audiomovers subscription tiers are quite affordable:

  • Weekly: $3.99

  • Monthly: $9.99

  • Yearly: $99.99

When sharing your files, sign up to your Audiomovers account to both send and receive the live stream. Send your client a link like if you were sharing with them a Google Sheets download link. And in case you’re still wondering whether you should pay one Audiomovers tier of service, the software comes with a one-week free trial.

A final word on collaboration: the fourth industrial revolution has come indeed with many pieces of software and hardware that has made possible to collaborate between professionals and studios. It is nonetheless as important to always nurture the collaborative spirit by being willing to work alongside other professionals in a specific workflow. This, of course, demands a more proactive and receptive attitude towards collaboration, otherwise, by not consider other perspectives, the chances of developing and learning something new are lower.

*The images used on this post are taken from Pexels.com

Sound For Documentary

Sound For Documentary

Since the emergence of the sheer array of affordable camera recorders, the rising prevalence of mobile phones with decent video cameras and the ubiquity of social media channels such as YouTube as one of today’s major media diffusion channels, it has never been this easy to produce and subsequently sharing documentary videos. If we were to take a much closer look at the whole production process, it would be easy to assert that sound is the weakest part of many of these videos. Although it is relatively easy to shoot and record with a camera regardless of its quality, the art of placing a microphone, monitoring and taking care of volume levels still remains an ambiguous puzzle compared to the other components that take place when shooting a video documentary.

In today’s post, we going to go through a general outline of practical techniques and an end-to-end guide to the primary tools for recording, editing and mixing sound for documentary audiovisual projects. Whether you are using a mobile phone, a regular video camera, a D-SLR, prosumer or a professional camcorder for shooting your project, the sound will always be an important part of the storytelling.

There are many ways in which tremendously good results can be achieved with consumer gear in many different circumstances; nonetheless, professional gear comes with extra possibilities. Here are some fundamental concepts directors and documentary producers need to bear in mind every time they want to take one of these projects.

Sound, as a conveyor of emotions - Picture, as a conveyor of information

Documentary shooting.jpeg

Think of the scene in Psycho of a woman taking a shower in silence. Now add the famous dissonant violin notes, and you get a whole new experience. That leads to consider the emotional impact of a project, in this case of a scene in particular. Sound conveys the emotional aspects of your documentary. It’s practically the soul of the picture. Paying special attention to sound, both during shooting and afterward in the studio, can make the real difference. No matter if you’re planning on doing a simple interview with plenty of dialogue, an enhanced, or rich sounding, in this case, the human voice is the differentiating factor between an amateur and professional project.

Microphone placement and noise management are key

The main issue with the vast majority of amateur sound recordings is the excessive presence of ambient and environmental noises from all kinds of sources, and a low sound level relative to the ambient noise. As a result, we’ve all seen how difficult it is to understand the dialogues, which is ultimately detrimental to the intended emotional impact. This common situation is one of the consequences of poor microphone placement. Directors and producers need to learn to listen to the recording and experiment with different microphones and different placement options. It all boils down to getting the microphone as close as practical to the intended sound, and as far away as possible from the extra noise that interacts in a negative way with the whole recording.

Additionally, if the documentary takes place outdoors, the chances of getting unwanted wind noise are hight, which is why the use of a windjammer to control wind noise is always a good idea. Regardless of whether you’re a professional or an amateur taking on a documentary audiovisual project, with a little bit of practice and research, you can craft outstanding sound recordings, irrespective of whether you’re recording with professional gear or your mobile phone.

Monitor your recording

In order to craft a compelling and professional recording, you need to properly set recording levels first —not too soft so sound doesn’t get lost in the overall noise; not too loud so you can avoid possible distortion. When recording, always monitor the sound you’re getting with professional headphones in order to avoid possible surprises in the edition. When using digital recording devices, it’s impossible to record anything beyond full scale, so abstain yourself from crossing this limit, as otherwise, the recording will sound hideous, unless your camera or the device you’re recording with as an automatic gain control to adjust recording levels.

The shotgun myth

There seems to be a myth regarding microphones. Apparently, some people firmly believe that the shotgun microphone reaches farther than other devices. This is not true. Shotgun microphone simply does not work like a telephoto lens. Sound, unlike light, travels in all directions. Of course, shotgun microphones work; they have their place, and they really come in handy in somewhat noisy environments, especially when you cannot be as close as the individual doing the talking as you’d like in an ideal scenario. That being said, shotgun microphones are far from performing magic. What they really do is that they respond to sound differently in terms of reduced level, null point, and coloration. Although they look impressive, plenty of sound professionals and directors choose to use different types of microphones for their documentary project.

*The images used on this post are taken from Pexels.com

 ADR: Tips And Tricks

ADR: Tips And Tricks

Automated Dialogue Recording, or ADR, is an essential part of every audiovisual project, but knowing its intricacies is key when it comes to becoming a proper filmmaker. ADR, as many people like to call it, is basically a method of adding dialogue to an already filmed scene. By superimposing dialogue that has already been recorded in a studio, or at least in an acoustically treated room or space, filmmakers can get past the challenges commonly associated with location dialogue. The problem with location dialogue is that it oftentimes results a bit hectic when environmental noises are too high and difficult to mute, the equipment doesn’t work the way it is supposed to do, or when the crew cannot get the right background noise.

When it comes to films, almost every contemporary Hollywood film has 50% to 70% ADR dialogue. ADR is no less than pivotal for the success of any film, and if executed the right way it can definitely salvage an entire film.

The Basics Of ADR

Before we get into more detail, there are several elements associated with ADR that filmmakers must bear in mind so they can plan and set up their recordings properly. By looping, existing playback of a repeating loop from the project is given to the recording crew while simultaneously recording new voices and dialogue. There are two different types of looping: audio looping and visual looping. With the latter, an actor listens to the location take or recording several times to understand the nature of that scene in particular and get a feel of the situation prior to recording the new dialogue. Once they’re ready to record, they will not hear the location take but will take a look at the scene to match lip synchronization. They always hear themselves over the monitors so they can hear the lines they’re delivering in real time.

Audio looping, on the other hand, will traditionally produce the most desirable outcome. However, it is important to mention, it is normally more time demanding. The session is carried out the same way as visual looping, cutting the video monitor and hearing the original dialogue track. The vast majority of ADR engineers are fond of using both techniques simultaneously. They always break up the looped lines into much smaller parts so they don’t lose consistency and synchronization. As for synchronization, for better sync when starting a line, ADR engineers record three beeps exactly one second apart each, so actors know when the first voice starts. This is known as an audio cue; like a metronome, so actors can start in the right moment under the proper rhythm of the line being recorded.

An ADR Recording Space

In sound and audio post-production, filmmakers have essentially more control over audio than they do when recording on location. The basic goal of each audiovisual project is to provide the audience with lots of experiences, and audio is not the exception. When it comes to ADR, the main idea is to get a really clear and clean ADR recording so ADR engineers can put the dialogue in an acoustically treated space with proper equalization.

ADR Equipment And Gear

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When recording ADR in an acoustically treated space such as an audio post-production studio, sound engineers and ADR professionals often try to use the same microphone the filmmaking unit used on location to capture the existing and original dialogue. The goal of ADR is to compellingly and adequately match the lines in both tonal characteristics and frequency response to the lines recorded on location. Since all microphones have different polar patterns and different frequency responses that yield different tonal nuances, it’s important, not only to use the exact same microphone—or at least a similar one—, but also to place them properly so acoustic features don’t get lost.

There are several digital audio workstations such as Pro Tools, Ableton Live, Logic, etc., that can help ADR engineers loop their recordings according to their needs. ADR demands, aside from microphones, other audio production software. A basic ADR toolkit looks like this:

  • Microphones

  • Digital Audio Workstation

  • Headphones

  • Preamp or Interface

  • Video Monitor

Microphone Placement And Delivery

Mic placement depends heavily on what type of microphones are being used. It is key to maintain a certain distance between the mic and the actor or actress to provide the recording with realism. Also, some ADR engineers are fond of using filters when deemed necessary. How an actor or an actress delivers the line is also pivotal for the success of the recording, as it affects the delivery itself and the tone of the ADR recording. Some actors tend to replicate the same movements being projected in the moving images, as it aids them in creating the exact same mood the filmmaker wants for that specific scene.

*The images used on this post are taken from Pexels.com

6 Tricks For Foley Sound Effects

6 Tricks For Foley Sound Effects

Foley artists are pivotal for any audiovisual project once it has been shot and edited, as they’re responsible for taking care of any possible missing sound, and, as described in a previous article, a crucial step in the audio post-production process is also what foley artists can do: perform and create sound effects to match the moving images being projected on the screen.

Common sound effects we always hear in movies for example footsteps, chewing, drinking, clothing movement, doors being opened, keys jingling, etc., are created through a set of different recording techniques and materials. Foley is more than simply manually editing sounds. In fact, it not only is more than that, but also more time efficient, and provides audiovisual projects with a much richer character and realism to other sounds in the film. Whenever a foley artist can’t create a sound in the studio, sound designers and sound editors will be always up for the task.

That being said, have you ever wondered what’s the best way to mimic or recreate the sound of a fight? The sound of fists going back and forth and hitting another body? Or how can you recreate the sound of footsteps in a snowy road in a recording studio? What’s the best way to mimic a sword fight? Here are some tips for coming with foley sound effects:

HOUSEHOLD SOUNDS

Wooden Creaks And Floors

People stepping on creaking wood and squeaking floors appear in practically every film you’ve seen. Footsteps on old floors or people walking over an old house porch are perhaps one of the most used scenes in films. Foley artists have at their disposal a sheer array of floors and objects to recreate these sounds. The advantage of using these accessories is that the sound, in this case, the creak or the squeak, can be to some extent controlled. Once Foley artists have developed a proper technique, coming up with these sounds and performing these creaks saves the picture a lot of time, as sound editors won’t need to edit all sounds on Pro Tools.

Fire

Fire is one of those sounds that also always appears in the vast majority of films. Foley artists often resort to accessories such as cellophane, potato chip bags, and even steel wool. The most common technique for recreating fire sounds is to scrunch up the accessory and then release it; the effect will be, of course, rather subtle, but when recorded with the mic closely a somewhat low-level fire sound will be achieved.

Cash

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Money and stacks of cash have their own sounds as well. Traditionally, whenever a foley artist has to develop the sound of cash, they often resort to an old deck of poker cards or book pages. In order for foley artists to successfully achieve this sound is to use accessories, in this case, paper sources, with flexible and softer textures. In fact, the vast majority of the time, foley artists add actual bills in the middle of the paper roll, or on the top, or on the bottom, so they fingers actually brush its surface, creating the sound of cash.

ANIMALS

Horses

Galloping horses is one of those sounds whose technique to achieve it has practically remained untouched. Foley artist normally uses coconuts to recreate horse hooves, and it’s probably the most well-known foley accessory thanks to Monty Python and The Holy Grail. Several foley artists suggest stuffing the half coconut with some materials such as fabric in order to get a more realistic sound. Then, hit a compact dirt or whatever surface the horse is running on with the stuffed coconuts.

Bird Wings

Just like with horses, in order to achieve the sound of birds flapping their wings or taking off, foley artists normally resort to traditional and really orthodox accessories such as a vintage feather duster or gloves. It’s also important to experiment with different materials and perhaps heavier textiles to create a much thicker sound for larger species. An old feather duster can create a terrific effect if the foley artist can find a nice sounding one and hit it against all kinds of surfaces and objects to create different sounds.

HUMANS

Inhaling A Cigarette

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Ever wondered hoy films record the sound associated with a cigarette inhale? Foley artists often use saran wrap and other light materials to get this sound. By using saran wrap, you can get a similar sound to the fire sound mentioned above; however, it’s more subtle. Nonetheless, it is produced the same way as you would produce the fire sound: compress and then release, but make sure to do it controlled so you don’t overdo it. Make sure to have the mic close enough so you can capture the desired level of subtleness; otherwise, you may obtain a totally different sound.

*The images used on this post are taken from Pexels.com

The Intricacies Of Mixing Sound For 360º Video

The Intricacies Of Mixing Sound For 360º Video

One of today’s most popular video formats is the 360º video. This format, which has been used by a plethora of influencers on YouTube (the platform in which the format gained its popularity), is seldom used outside social media channels, which is why there’s not a lot of information on how to edit sound for what is also called spatialized video. If you happen to have a project of this nature in mind, in this article we’ve shared the details on the intricacies of mixing audio and sound for this kind of video format.

The Visuals Will Determine Your Approach

When it comes to 360ª video, we’re basically talking about videos that represent the projected images as a single flat still. Thus, it is normal for viewers to perceive ceilings and floors as curved figures. In fact, rounded visuals suggest that 360º videos are a geometrical representation of a cylinder, which causes the seams to be curved; however, these also get flattened when they’re run through a 360º video editor software. So, under these circumstances, how do you even start outlining a plan to properly add audio to such complicated format? To being with, just like any other video format, a 360º video can also be split into different quadrants.

Think of quadrants as small parts of the whole sequence, and while it may look that sometimes there are duplicated quadrants, in fact, it’s just a visual representation of one quadrant split in two different, but equally long, parts. If you were to print the whole sequence as a linear chain of events, you would be able to fold the impression into a cylinder shape and see how each quadrant connects with each other—as it’s supposed to be. Having said that, approach each quadrant as a mini video. If you could separate each quadrant and add audio quadrant by quadrant, a spatialization software could also take it from that point on.

Organize Accordingly

Now that you’ve split the video into different quadrants, you can start thinking about the specific audio for each section. For specific audio, you don’t necessarily need anything else aside from a mono stem simply because you just want to pinpoint the sound. Some sound designers start by adjusting their mix template from the traditional 5.1 set of routing down to simply mono for both sound effects and dialogues. Music and score is an entire different world, and let’s leave it for later. Unlike typical dialogue recording, where a traditional edit would have just one track for each main role or character, the spatialized video focuses on quadrants. This totally goes against a sound editor’s normal workflow.

The same approach goes for sound effects, although some of the effects often cross quadrants. If that were the case, the best choice would be to crossfade uniformly across each quadrant in an attempt to match the timing of what’s going on in the action sequences.

The Music

When creating and editing sound for 360º videos, as a sound editor you often come across several complications, and music is not the exception. Music presents two different challenges; however, the most important thing is to always keep the current spatialization in mind for both music creation and post mix. If musical sounds, especially those created by the people appearing in the projected images —like someone playing an instrument—, cross different quadrants, it’s important to define what sound you want to pinpoint and place the instrument on its own mono stem.

The Mix

Mixing is pretty much like any other mixing you’re probably familiar with. Once you have split the video into quadrants and have been working on its unfolded format, the mixing should aim towards playing a rather balanced short. Since we are talking about a 360º format, some sounds will certainly draw viewer attention to specific parts or quadrants. That suggests that, when leveling each sound, the ones that should be highlighted ought to be played a bit louder in the mix.

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360º video format will certainly become more popular for other projects and platforms. Spatialization, for instance, can definitely differ from project to project, and the amount of audio and sounds crossing different quadrants and overlapping other sections of the project will be also different. As for the music, its treatment may entirely alter the way sound editors approach this kind of projects. The most recommendable thing is to plan beforehand and study the project so that you don’t fail in the early stages. Bear in mind that mixing for spatialized audio, or 360º video, requires way more tracks than a traditional project, and sometimes, if the video requires splitting dialogue, different musical tracks, different sound effects, the mix session will likely be of massive proportions —which is why, if you’re into this format, you’ve got to be sure you have a system powerful enough for the total track count.

*The images used on this post are taken from Pexels.com

An Introduction To Film Sound

An Introduction To Film Sound

When it comes to film, we might actually think it is basically and essentially a visual experience; however, a film is much more than that. We really cannot simply disregard and underestimate the importance of sound within the film biome: a well-crafted soundtrack is often as powerful —and sometimes complicated— as the image on the screen. So, in order for us to understand the complexity of today’s modern film, there are several aspects that traditionally go unnoticed by the audience, but that is as important as the image being projected.

Soundtracks are entirely a different universe. And they involve three different aspects: the human voice, music and sound effects. In fact, each component is a soundtrack on its own, and they need to coexist seamlessly. These three soundtracks must be balanced and mixed in a way so they produce the desired effect and the desired emphasis throughout the film.


The Human Voice

When it comes to the human voice, we are basically talking about dialogues. Dialogues are used to authenticate the speaker as a real individual rather than a product or a concept of imaginary storytelling. For example, with stage drama, the dialogue is used to convey the story, and it ultimately expresses the motivations and feelings of the characters during the play.

Oftentimes, within the film ecosystem, audiences perceive little or practically no difference between the character being portrayed and the actor portraying the character. Think of Humphrey Bogart and Sam Spade or Jim Carrey and Stanley Ipkiss: we could assert to some extent that both film personality and Mr. Bogart’s and Carrey’s own personality merge in a rather high level since their voices complement both characters.

Additionally, when voice texture seems to fit the actor’s of the performer’s aspect and appearance, a wholly different yet realistic character, called persona, is born. The audience does not see a performer working on the character, but another individual struggling through all kinds of situations. On another note, it is also worth mentioning that dialogues are introduced within films in a unique way, and its use varies widely among the nature of the film. Sometimes films include little to no dialogue, and the narrative depends a lot on the visuals, and sometimes audiences are faced with non-stop dialogues, bouncing from conversations to a conversation in a frenetic, comedic way.

Sound Effects

Sound effects have two major components, so to speak. First, when talking about sound effects, we also talk about synchronous sounds —those sounds that match what the audience is watching. For example, if a character is playing a musical instrument, then the sounds of the instruments are projected. This type of sounds also contribute to the realism of a visual project or a film and are also used to create a desired or particular atmosphere. For example, when a door is being opened and we hear the door handle make its particular “click”, we are fully convinced that the image being portrayed is real.

However, if the door handle clicks during an action sequence like a robbery, the sound mixer may emphasize differently the “click” with a totally different volume level to create suspense.

The other main component of sound effects are the asynchronous sounds —those that don’t match what the audience is watching on the screen. These are used to introduce emotional nuances in the project and add a bit more realism. Think of ambulances as background sounds during a car chase, for example. The noise of the siren adds to the realism of the film by elaborating on the project’s city set. Or the noise of birds, dogs, and bystanders while a couple is arguing about something in the park during autumn. Both scenarios are real to us simply because we associate the background sounds we hear with what we are used to. We know ambulances move across city streets, and we know parks are often full of people with their pets.

Music

Background music plays a pivotal role in every visual project. Music is often used to add nuances and emotions as well as rhythm to the film. Traditionally, music is not meant for the audience to note it, as it is rather used to provide a specific tone or emotional nuance to the story. Additionally, music also emphasizes all types of changes throughout a visual project; it foretells changes in mood, in pace, in sequences, etc.

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Film sound is often comprised of both innovations and conventions. During a car chase, for example, the audience always subconsciously expect an acceleration of the music; however, it is important to mention that music and sound are most of the times brilliantly conceived and written. The effects of sound remain largely subtle and are noted only by our subconscious, but they play a key role in our capacity to appreciate and understand what we call today the modern film.

*The images used on this post are taken from Pexels.com

AES 2017 Gear Rundown

AES 2017 Gear Rundown

The AES convention is a time where many new products are released and shown off. This year was no exception to that. If you were lucky enough to be on the floor of AES this year then you probably already saw and heard these pieces of gear. Here's some new gear announced at AES this year:

Neve 1073SPX - this is a rack unit version of the classic 1073 preamp/EQ. Previously this was only put out by other companies and Neve would require you to buy a rack to house a single unit. Read more about it here.

Transformizer Pro - This is a sound designers dream. The plugin takes one main sound and allows you to layer other sounds with it to fill it out and make it larger than life. the other sounds will adapt to the original sound in volume, timbre, pitch, and length. Read more about it here.

Sound Radix Powair - This plugin is an adaptive compressor. This is a great tool for music and in film/tv mixing. This will allow more flexibility than traditional limiters and allow for certain things to cut through based on their transients. Read more about it here.

PACE iLok Cloud - Hate using pesky USB keys and dongles that can get easily lost or broken? Dislike having thousands of dollars on one of those? Well good news, iLok will now be a secure online system. Joining the ranks of other software developers like Waves and others who use a proprietary online system, iLok will debut this new technology in early 2018. It is undetermined if this will be free or a subscription. Read more about it here.

Great new products this year that will be very helpful in post production and music.